Pixellated arrays of high stopping power scintillation crystals are used in PET systems to image patients for cancer, Alzheimer’s Disease, cardiac issues and other health problems. PreludeTM 420 (LYSO) and BGO are traditional materials used in this application. The introduction of BrilLanCeTM 380 (LaBr3(Ce)) has opened up unprecedented performance levels for Time of Flight systems. Sodium iodide, either curved or with the proprietary StarbriteTM treatment, provides a cost effective solution in PET or coincidence systems. Monolithic crystals, in some cases mounted directly on light sensors such as PMTs or SiPMs, may also be used.
Large packaged sodium iodide - NaI(Tl) - crystals are the standard for planar or SPECT cameras. These are used with standard photomultiplier tubes for general purpose (whole body) or organ specific machines. For organ specific machines with position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), pixellated NaI(Tl) detectors provided enhanced spatial resolution performance. For dual use with lower energy (such as Tc99) and higher energy (such as FDG) isotopes (in coincidence mode), StarbriteTM detectors provide higher performance without compromise.
Radiation detectors are used in a variety of Medical applications. These include well type detectors to analyze blood samples in test tubes for Radioimmunoassay (RIA), blood volume, red blood cell and other tests. Detectors are also used in surgical probes or whole body scanners. Optical fibers or light guides can also be used in medical imaging applications, particularly where positional information is required or to separate the photomultiplier tubes from high magnetic fields, such as in PET/MR systems. Pixellated arrays can be used for CT and other imaging applications.
Typical configurations include packaged detectors and fully integrated solutions including the photomultiplier tube (PMT) or silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and electronics.
Detectors with NaI(Tl) crystals integrated with photomultiplier tubes provide an excellent mix of value and performance to measure X-Rays in Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) systems. Detectors are also available with special low energy entrance windows if required. Other crystals, such as PreLude 420 (LYSO), and light sensors, such as photodiodes and silicon photomultipliers, are also good options for BMD.
Image guided surgery, using CT and MRI, is an emerging application. Many traditional materials, such as steel, cannot be used in this application due to resulting distortion in the image or incompatability with magnetic fields. Sapphire is an excellent alternative as it is radiotranslucent, non-magnetic and features high strength and excellent optical transmission. It has been used both for mechanical applications such as skull pins and for optical applications including laser probes.